Tehran(Persian: تهران pronounced Tehrān) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
With a population of 12,223,598 it is Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia.
In the 20th and 21st centuries, Tehran has been the subject to mass migration of people from all around Iran.
The city is home to many historic mosques, churches, synagogues and Zoroastrian fire temples.
Contemporary Tehran is a modern city featuring many structures, of which the Azadi (Freedom) Tower and the Milad Tower have come to be symbols of Tehran itself.
Tehran is 29th by the population of its metropolitan area.
Throughout Iran's history, the capital has been moved many times,and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran although it has been Iran's capital for about 220 years.
Persian is the city's native tongue, spoken by roughly 98% of the population.The majority of people in Tehran identify themselves as Persians.
In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Tehran was called Ray (which in the Avesta occurs in the form of Ragha).
Tehran Province (Persian: استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
It covers on area of 18,909 square kilometres (7,301 sq mi) and is located to the north of the central plateau of Iran.
Tehran Province borders Māzandarān Province in the north, Qom Province in the south, Semnān Province in the east, and Qazvīn Province in the west.
The metropolis of Tehran is the capital city of the province and of Iran.
As of June 2005[update], this province includes 13 townships, 43 municipalities, and 1358 villages.
Tehran Province is the richest province of Iran as it contributes approximately 29% of the country's GDP.
Furthermore, it houses approximately 18% of the country's population.
Tehran Province is the most industrialized province in Iran; 86.5% of its population resides in urban areas and 13.5% of its population resides in rural areas.
The province gained importance when Tehran was claimed the capital by the Qajar dynasty in 1778.
Today, Tehran, with a population of more than 7 million, is ranked amongst the 20 most populous metropolitan cities of the world.
Tehran Azadi Tower
The architect, Hossein Amanat, won a competition to design the monument, which combines elements of Sassanid and Islamic architecture. Amanat, a Baha'i, was driven from the country by the revolution against the Shah of Iran and the removal of religious pluralism. It is part of the Azadi cultural complex, located in Tehran's Azadi Square in an area of some 50,000 m². There are several fountains around the base of the tower and a museum underground. The iconic Monument des Martyrs in Algiers (built, 1982) shows a strong influence by this monument, in its general design as well as its details.
Built with white marble stone from the Esfahan region, there are eight thousand blocks of stone. The stones were all located and supplied by Ghanbar Rahimi, whose knowledge of the quarries was second to none and who was known as "Soltan-e-Sang-e-Iran". The shape of each of the blocks was calculated by a computer, and programmed to include all the instructions for the building's work. The actual construction of the tower was carried out, and supervised by Iran's finest master stonemason, Ghaffar Davarpanah Varnosfaderani. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists. The inauguration took place on October 16, 1971.